Filipinoj: Aeta, Mangyan, Igo, Tasaday of Mindanao 先民 森林民族 菲律宾 ของ มินดาเนา ฟิลิปปินส์
In 1971, PANAMIN (Private Association for National Minorities), a non profit organization established by the Philippine government, headed by Filipino millionaire Manuel Elizalde Jr., discovered in the outskirts of South Cotabato in the Mindanao rainforest a tribe of indigenous people living in cave dwellings. The newly discovered tribe people, whom they named the TASADAY, were the last remaining people on earth that lives on the Stone Age lifestyle. Tasaday cave dwellers, said to be living on the caverns for thousands of years, primarily eats fruits (wild yams), crabs, tadpoles, frogs, and other vegetation they can gather at the vicinity of the rainforest. Based on the report, they do not know how to cultivate land for farming or hunt for game and wild animals.
The Tasadays wore leaves for their clothing and uses stone for their tools. They are also said to be peaceful loving people, they do not have words for war, enemy, or weapons.
International press agencies and organizations such as the National Geographic Society were permitted by PANAMIN to study this tribe. The 1972 National Geographic documentary entitled "The Last Tribes of Mindanao" further trusted the Tasaday discovery into the limelight. The Tasadays were very popular during this period, even famous American aviator Charles Lindbergh and Italian actress and photojournalist Gina Lollobrigida visited the Tasaday caves with the strict supervision of Elizalde and the PANAMIN group.On April 1972, at the suggestion of Charles Lindbergh and PANAMIN, then President Ferdinand Marcos declared the 19,000 acres surrounding the Tasaday caves as the Tasaday/Manobo Blit Preserve. By 1976, President Marcos issued a Presidential decree banning all outside visitors to the Tasaday nature reserve.
In 1986, when the Marcos regime collapsed, Swiss journalist and anthropologist Oswald Iten visited the Tasaday caves. He brought with him South Cotabato journalist Joey Lozano and Datu Galang Tikaw. When they arrived at the caves, they found them to be deserted, and after further investigation on the nearby vicinity, they encountered the Tasadays, originally featured on the PANAMIN discovery, living not on caves but on huts and wooden houses, wearing jeans and t-shirts, and even smoking cigarettes. When Iten interviewed some of these so-called Tasadays, they claimed that they were never really Stone Age cave people. They only posed as primitive cave dwellers at the behest of Mr. Elizalde who promised to give them financial support and government protection if they lose all of their modern clothings and live inside the caves as a tribe of primitive cave people. They also said that before the discovery, they were farmers living on the other side of the mountain. With the Oswald Iten discovery and revelations, the Tasadays were once again thrusted into the international limelight. Foreign press and Documentaries showed during 2000's, Tribe That Was no more.. and claimed that the Tasaday discovery in the 70's was a Marcos-Elizalde hoax. Manuel Elizalde, through his wealth and political connections, defended his Tasaday discovery until his death in 1997. He brought some members of the Tasaday tribe to Manila to file a libel suit against some Philippine professors for claiming that the Tasadays were just an elaborate hoax. In 1988, then Philippine President Corazon Aquino made a controversial statement on the Tasaday issue when she declared a closure to the Tasaday controversy by saying that the Tasadays are a legitimate Stone Age tribe. An American linguist professor from the University of Hawaii, Dr. Lawrence A. Reid, lived with the Tasaday people during the 1990's to study their unique dialect. Dr. Reid stated in his report Linguistic Archaeology: Tracking down the Tasaday Language that the Tasaday language is similar to the Cotabato Manobo language, a language which is not spoken at the nearby farming community. Based on his studies, Dr. Reid made a final conclusion to the Tasaday controversy. He claimed that the Tasadays were once part of the Cotabato Manobo tribe and were possibly forced to relocate, possibly by tribal wars or diseases, some 150 to 200 years ago to their present cave dwellings. They are also adapted to some modern conveniences like hunting and farming tools which, suggested by the Reid report, were acquired by the Tasadays during the 1950's from nearby tribes. Dr. Reid also concluded that the Tasaday people during the 1971 discovery were living a primitive way of life, however, they do know how to farm and hunt for food, and they also wear modern clothing as opposed to leaves.
Mangyan of Mindoro Aeta Filipinoj พี่น้องต้น ป่า ฟิลิปปินส์ | Mangyans were the first to inhabit the island of Mindoro. A mixture of Austronesians, proto-Malays and Indian settlers. The Mangyans are composed of twelve tribes, each with its own language, culture, and way of life. There are the Iraya, Batangan, Buid, Hanuno'o (Hanonoo), Alangan, Ratagnon, Tagaydan, Bangon, Pula, Buhid, Nauhan and Furuan. For centuries, they lived peacefully the whole island including the coasts. That was until migrants from nearby islands settled on the island. To avoid disputes, the mild-mannered and peace-loving people gave up their land, moved to the mountains, and came down only for food and other necessities. The Hanunoo Mangyan can speak of the Cordillera Ifugao as being Mangyan too, because their traditional wear is the loincloth. The term damu-ong or kristiyano is refer to all non-Mangyan peoples and to all outsiders. Sadly, they have been treated as second class citizens like other indigenous people in the world, for years often exploited, neglected, and discriminated against by lowlanders. They have experienced being misjudged as uneducated and uncivilized people. They often struggle with poverty. They survive by farming root crops and fruits, which is the only livelihood they know.
During the Spanish colonial period, as a result of the Moro-Christian wars, the Mangyan of Mindoro were taken captives, sold as slaves, and sometimes killed. The island went through a period of depopulation, trading deterioration, plague of malaria; the Mangyan suffers extreme pain and privation. Spanish arms came with monks and priests. American arms came with American anthropology. The shy, withdrawn, and hardworking nature of the Mangyan came to the attention of the American entrepreneurs who saw their potential as a labor force for new sugar estate established in Mindoro and more Mangyan were forced to live in reservations, like those created for the native Americans, and relocated to areas (in isolation) far from lowland settlements inhabited mostly by the Tagalog. Mangyan life has continued to be precarious. Counterinsurgency campaigns, economic exploitation of Mindoro's natural resources, landgrabbing and speculation, gradual and erosive influx of modernization and assimilation into lowland cultures, inclement weather, limited food supplies, difficulties in taming the wild and rugged land, have exacerbated their subsistence level of life. The process of cultural disintegration and ethnic extinction appears to be irreversible.
Since the Mangyan are swidden farmers, their spiritual beliefs are related to their means of livelihood. Agricultural rites suggest the importance of farming and the belief in spiritual beings or forces that can influence a good harvest. The Hanunoo Mangyan believe in a Supreme Being (Mahal na Makaako), who gave life to all human beings of the universe, called sinukuban or kalibutan (the whole surrounding) which has a globular shape like a coconut. All beings, visible or invisible, live in this space. The stratum of the earth is called the usa ka daga. The daga (land) is surrounded by a border area, which is dagat (sea). Beyond the dagat is the katapusan, the edge of the universe, covered with thick woods and rocks. Nothing lies beyond it. This is the home of the labang (horrible creatures and evil spirits feared by the Hanunoo). The labang can take on animal and human forms before killing and eating their victims. They are believed to roam the areas they used to frequent during their mortal existence until they move on to dwell in Binayi's garden, where all spirits rest. Binayo is a sacred female spirit, caretaker of the rice spirits or the kalag paray. She is married to the spirit Bulungabon who is aided by 12 fierce dogs. Erring souls are chased by these dogs are eventually drowned in a caldron of boiling water. The kalag paray must be appeased, to ensure a bountiful harvest. It is for this reason that specific rituals are conducted in every phase of rice cultivation: the rite of the first planting (panudlak); the rite of rice planting itself; the rites of harvesting which consist of the magbugkos or binding rice stalks, and the pamag-uhan, which follows the harvest. The family is considered as the basic unit of production and consumption. Their villages are settlements of four to five houses located apart from each other. For two decades, Calapan City in Oriental Mindoro has been the venue the Sanduguan Festival. Every November 15, the main thoroughfares in the city are closed to vehicles to give way to the dancing parade. Various groups of students from different levels re-enact the first barter trade through dance interpretations. The Hanunuos have two burial occasions. The first takes place soon after death. The second after a year or two years when the bones have to be exhumed. They believe that Maha na Makaako has a son called Presidents who executes his father's command. They also believe in evil spirits and in immortality. Any criminal act or offense done is corrected with the use of either the pangaw or tige. Pangaw is the Iraya's version of the detention cell. Tige on the other hand is a punishment wherein the suspects of a particular offense are called and are ordered to immerse their right hand in a pot of boiling water to pick up the white stone at the bottom of the pot. Anyone of the susupects whose right hand gets burned is considered to be the guilty party. It is believed that the innocent parties will not get burned in this particular test because Apo Iraya will protect them from harm.
Tagbanua of Palawan and Mindoro islands
Gebusi de Papuo- ปาปัว อะบอริจิ (Pāpạw xa bx ri ci) Gebusi religio.pdf | Borneo GawaiAntu.pdf | Filipin Antu.pdf | Spirit catches You by A.Fadiman.pdf
In 1980-82, Gebusi ritual customs included all-night dances at which dancers incarnated the various spirits of the Gebusi cosmos. Spirit forms from the upper spirit world, including birds and tree animals, grace the upper half of the dancer's body. Those from the lower spirit world, such crocodiles and fish, are indicated in the lower half of the costume, for instance, in the crocodile-mouth drum and crayfish rattles that extend from the rear of the dancer's costume and clack as he dances up and down. In composite, the dancer literally embodies the aesthetic and social harmony of the various spirit forms. This spiritual commemoration parallels the actions of Gebusi themselves, who come together at the rituaul feast in peaceful association with each other.
Ritual dancers dress in a standard costume form that is always almost exactly the same (see a similarly costumed dancer in the right rear of the photograph above). The dancer bounces up and down slowly to the beat of his drum. The male dancers are accompanied by songs of melancholy longing sung by women, who sit off to the side. Click here to hear an example of women's hayay singing that accompanies male dancing. (Bruce Knauft) | Kali (Dab pog) cross-cultural fertility god/goddess of eros-thanatos.
In the Dreamtime
In the Dreamtimetotemic creatures was running across the Australia, singing lullabies, so did those names get to exist things, alleys and mountains, rivers and stars. This dreamtime' (Jukurpa) ancestors during their walkabout, were handing over maps, in the songs of their descending clans. The Earth (Thera) before should exist as a mind concept. Then we have to sing it. Finally we can say that She exist! The Aborigines of bushland Australia, still today they exchange this ancestors' songs (sound maps of territory) with other tribes, so expanding their own knowledge and fertility rites. Every man has a dream as a founding myth, each one of that may be danced with anklets and obsessive rhythm to gain the ancestral keys of shaman's worlds as the pygmies of Africa seated on the soil for ritual socialization. For the Kogi of Colombia, the Mother is the source, the sea of consciousness from which all emerged. She is Aluna, the essence of reality. This is the law of the Mother, the first Woman, Mother of the elder brother and the younger brother, the feminine fertility, life itself. Kogi people see indigenous humanity as the Elder Brother, and the industrial, colonial civilizers as the Younger
Borneo: Dayak of Sarawak; Iban family; Antu of forest; Saman of Kalimantan.
Penan struggle for survival; Bruno Manser then Ifugao lady from Philiphin
Igorot is the collective name of several Austronesian ethnic groups from the Cordillera, Northern Luzon, Philippines. They inhabit the six provinces of Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Kalinga, Ifugao, and Mountain Province; plus the lone city of Baguio. They can be roughly divided into two subgroups: the larger group lives in the south, central and western areas, and is very adept at rice-terrace farming; the smaller group lives in the east and north. Before the Spanish colonization of the Philippines, the groups did not consider themselves as belonging to one cohesive ethnic group. The word "Igorot" (Igolot, Ygolot, Igorrote)) is archaic Tagalog for mountain people. The names Ifugao or Ipugao (also meaning "mountain people") are used more frequently within the Igorots themselves. Cordillera ethnic groups: Ilocano, Isneg/Apayao, Gaddang, Ibanag, Yogad, Kalinga–Itneg, Balangao, Bontok, Kankanaey, Ilongot, Pangasinan, Ibaloi. In 1904, quite a few Igorot people were brought to St. Louis, Missouri, the United States of America. They constructed the Igorot Village in the Philippine Exposition section of the 1904 World's Fair of St. Louis. The poet T. S. Eliot born and raised in St. Louis visited and explored the Village. Inspired by their tribal dance, he wrote the short story "The Man Who Was King.
Thailand Akha home and lady (youtube: Hmong Shaman in Usa), Hindoĉinio 印度支那 อินโดจีน | Mss. Lasoy, northern Laos | Shan tribe-Rice people (Myanmar) | Hanunoo millingstone (Philippines) | Gujarati woman (India)
Hippocrates, the father of allopatic medicine (460 B.C.), dismisses the magical attributes of opium but acknowledges its usefulness as a narcotic and styptic in treating internal diseases, diseases of women and epidemics. Alexander the Great introduces opium to the people of Persia and India, then Opium Thebaicum, from Thebes, is first introduced to China by Arab traders. The Portugese, while trading along the East China Sea, initiate the smoking of opium. The effects were instantaneous as they discovered but it was a practice the Chinese considered barbaric and subversive. the Dutch introduce the practice of smoking opium in a tobacco pipe to the Chinese and the islands of Southeast Asia. The British East India Company establishes a monopoly on the opium trade. All poppy growers in India were forbidden to sell opium to competitor trading companies. China's emperor, Kia King (1799), bans opium completely, making trade and poppy cultivation illegal. (March 18, 1839) Lin Tse-Hsu, imperial Chinese commissioner in charge of suppressing the opium traffic, orders all foreign traders to surrender their opium. In response, the British send expenditionary warships to the coast of China, beginning The First Opium War. The Chinese are defeated along with paying a large indemnity, Hong Kong is ceded to the British. (1856) The British and French renew their hostilities against China in the Second Opium War. In the aftermath of the struggle, China is forced to pay another indemnity. The importation of opium is legalized. (1878) Britain passes the Opium Act: the selling of opium is restricted to registered Chinese opium smokers and Indian opium eaters while the Burmese (Shan state) are strictly prohibited from smoking opium. British efforts to maintain a strict monopoly on the opium trade. 1890 U.S. Congress imposes a tax on opium and morphine. During World War II, opium trade routes are blocked and the flow of opium from India and Persia is cut off. Fearful of losing their opium monopoly, the French encourage Hmong (and hilltribes) farmers to expand their opium production.
Tissagami, chief of Wanniya-aeto clan of Dambana (Sri Lanka)
Valli Malli, princess of Wanniya-aeto | Gotu kola
Apatani tribe of Arunachal Pradesh, India
Tungusic peoples are the peoples who speak Tungusic languages. The word originated in Tunguska, an ill-defined region of Siberia. Tungus-Manchu shamanism 满族 萨满 Mǎnzú | Manchu people | Kamchatka 1, Kamchatka 2, Kamchatka 4
The Manchus 满族, also known as Bannermen, Tartars and red tasseled Mongols, are members of an indigenous people of Manchuria and the largest branch of the Tungusic peoples. They are distributed throughout China as the fourth largest ethnic group and the third largest ethnic minority group there. Originally, Manchus, and their predecessors, were principally Shamanists. Shamanism has a long history in Manchu civilization and influenced them tremendously over thousands of years. After the conquest of China, in the 17th century, Manchus widely adopted Chinese folk religion and Buddhism and Christinaity also had their impacts. Manchus are today mostly irreligious. Shamanic traditions can still be found in the aspects of soul worship, totem worship, belief in nightmares and apotheosis of philanthropists. Since the Qing rulers considered religion as a method of controlling other powers such as Mongolians and Tibetans, there was no privilege for Shamanism, their native religion. Apart from the Shamanic temples in the Qing palace, no temples erected for worship of Manchu gods could be found in Beijing. Thus, the story of competition between Shamanists and Lamaists was oft heard in Manchuria but the Manchu emperor helped Lamaists to persecute Shamanists which led to their considerable frustration and dissatisfaction. Jurchens, the predecessors of the Manchus, were influenced by the Buddhism in the 10-13th centuries, so it was not something new to the rising Manchus in the 16-17th centuries. Qing emperors were always entitled Buddha. They were regarded as Mañjuśrī in Tibetan Buddhism and had high attainments. Manchus were affected by Chinese folk religions for most of the Qing Dynasty. Save for ancestor worship, the gods they consecrated were virtually identical to those of the Han Chinese. Guan Yu worship was considered as the God Protector of the Nation and was sincerely worshipped by Manchus.
our Elders of Ameriko, Amerikaj fratoj 美国 南美洲 อเมริกาใต้ ประเทศสหรัฐอเมริกา
Antarkto 南极 แอนตาร์กติกา, Patagonio 巴塔哥尼亚 | Inuit Arkto 北极 (1943 - 1949 | Amazon 亚马逊河流域 อเมซอน | Indios | Mehinacu | Matis | Brazilo 巴西 บราซิล | Peruo 秘鲁 เปรู, Gvatemalo 危地马拉 กัวเตมาลา, Meksiko 墨西哥 เม็กซิโก, USA/Usono 美国 ประเทศสหรัฐอเมริกา
Fuegins (Selknam, Onas, etc, by Martin Gusinde)先民 南极 บุคคล แอนตาร์กติกา
Fuegins (Yamana tribe), 先民 南极, บุคคล แอนตาร์กติกา
Inuit & Fuegins Arkto - Antarkto 北极 南极 先民 บุคคล แอนตาร์กติกา
The areas of the planet through which more civilizations have successively passed and that own a centralized social structure from the big urban nuclei are those that preserve the fewest traces of Shaman activities. These can still be maintained among the Inuit (name the Eskimos of the extreme north give themselves) or the fueginos (the first inhabitants of the south end of America), among the inhabitants of the African, Asian or American jungles or hard to reach places, like deserts and mountains. Shamanism is tied to groups that show a tight relationship with nature, up to the point in which any menace towards it impoverishes our possible comprehension of its concrete manifestations. Around 9,000 years ago agriculture and the domestication of stock-animals came into being in what is now Turkey. Larger amounts of food enabled the peoples that raised the animals and crops to increase their populations a hundred-fold. Having done so, those same people, who only generations before were once small tribal peoples themselves, gradually forayed into Europe, taking their animals and crops with them and driving back into even more inhospitable regions the hunter-gatherers. The movement took place over a period of 4,000 years, affecting the whole of Europe and all of the people and tribes therein. Unlike what is found on the North American continent, most of the European tribal names, customs, culture and rituals were almost totally wiped out or erased during that 4,000 year period.
Hopi of Arizona | Hopi/Zuni village | Hopi traditional priest | Usono medicino viroj 萨满 Usono 美国 หมอผี ประเทศสหรัฐอเมริกา
Black Elk, Oglala-Dakota (Sioux) tribes | NAC Denaskaj eklezio คริสตจักร อเมริกัน พื้นเมือง
Maria Sabina.pdf Meksiko ŝamanoj 墨西哥 萨满.sà mǎn, 巫师.wūshī, เม็กซิโก ชาแมน.Chā mæn
Pan | Mexican Hikurì dance | Wirarika's cacti | Kayumari drum | Meksiko-Gvatemalo danco先民舞蹈 危地马拉, 墨西哥 เต้นรำ เม็กซิโก อินเดีย, กัวเตมาลา | North American shamans Usono 美国萨满 คริสตจักร อเมริกัน พื้นเมือง, หมอผี | Peruo cacti 仙人掌秘鲁 เปรู ชายยาสมุนไพร
塔霍的诗集 LIBERTAGES on Agrobuti.net
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Jurema tree and spirit song | Peganum desert plant | Jagube (banisteriopsis caapi) also called Yagè or Ayahuasca | Ayahuasca cartoon 1 | Yagè cartoon 2 (by S.R.Ivaldi) | Amazon cartoon 3 |
Peruvian herbalist 秘鲁 เปรู ชายยาสมุนไพร | Icaros 浏览 上传 退出 Icaros del Tiempo (E.Muraray, Jose campos) - ceremonia de Yagè, primer Icaro
Peruvian medicino icaros浏览 上传 退出 | Icaros of Rio Momon
Kambo Amazono sà mǎn 亚马逊河流域 萨满 อเมซอน ชาแมน, หมอผี.H̄mxp̄hī | Awà Amazono povo | Yanomami medicino herbalist 萨满亚马逊河流域 อเมซอน ชายยาสมุนไพร.s̄munphịr
our Elders of Afriko, Afrikoj fratoj 非洲 แอฟริกา xæfrikā
Mbuti 俾格米人 คนแคระ - Gabono กาบอง | Kameruno 喀麦隆 แคเมอรูน | Kalahari 卡拉哈里 kǎlā hālǐ - Namibio 纳米比亚 นามิเบีย | Omo Valley Tribes | Madagaskar | Kongo 刚果的森林 ผู้หญิงใน นิวกินี มักตัดนิ้วตัวเอง เมื่อญาติสนิทตาย
Thousands of Batwa pygmies without home, becouse of the government campaign against native sustainable huts (april 2011, source: survival.org). 30 thousand roof burned.
Gabon nganga Afriko ŝamano 非洲 萨满巫师 หมอผี แม่น้ำคองโก แอฟริกา H̄mxp̄hī Mæ̀n̂ả khxngko Xæfrikā. In the Kingdom of Kongo the term Nganga was the normal name for a person who possessed the skill to communicate with the Other World, as well as divining the cause of illness, misfortune and social stress and preparing measures to address them, often by supernatural means but sometimes natural medicine as well. They were also responsible for charging nkisi, or physical objects intended to be the receptacle for spiritual forces. When Kongo converted to Christianity in the late fifteenth century, the term nganga was used to translate Christian priest as well as traditional spiritual mediators. In modern Kikongo Christian priests are often called Nganga a Nzambi or priests of God. In South Africa, the nganga has a medicinal role, in contrast to the sangoma, who deals with the spirits. In Swahili, mganga refers to a qualified physician or traditional healer. In Haiti, the term for voodoo high priest, Houngan, is derived from the word nganga.
Friedrich Sertuerner of Paderborn, Germany (1803), discovers the active ingredient of opium by dissolving it in acid then neutralizing it with ammonia. The result: alkaloids--Principium somniferum or morphine. John Keats and other English literary personalities experiment with opium for strict recreational use simply for the high and taken at extended, non-addictive intervals. 1821 Thomas De Quincey publishes his autobiographical account of opium addiction, Confessions of an English Opium-eater. (1874) English researcher, C.R. Wright first synthesizes heroin, or diacetylmorphine, by boiling morphine over a stove. In San Francisco, smoking opium in the city limits is banned and is confined to neighboring Chinatowns and their opium dens. -In 1895 Heinrich Dreser working for The Bayer Company of Elberfeld, Germany, finds that diluting morphine with acetyls produces a drug without the common morphine side effects. Bayer begins production of diacetylmorphine and coins the name heroin. Heroin addiction rises to alarming rates. U.S. Congress bans opium. Several physicians experiment with treatments for heroin addiction. Dr Alexander Lambert and Charles B. cure consisted of a 7 day regimen, which included a five day purge of heroin from the addict's system with doses of belladonna delirium. H.Lotsof finally, found the most effective cure anti-addiction, based on the African plant of Tabernanthe Iboga
the Omo-valley tribes of southern Ethiopia where the human race come from. Then Himba beautiful people of Angola and Namibia, facing today hardtime with progressive contamination with tourist consumistic models of life. Next, Ju-joansi (San) people of Kalahari. Then info exchanges between Bil Mollison (Tasmanian aboriginal Permaculture), !Kung people and Zephaniah Phiri Maseko, (the Masanobu Fukuoka of Zvishavane, Zimbabwe) about sustainables Water harvesting strategies..
Kinaciau 基那洲 Jīnàzhōu ฤาษี | Zutwasi harvesting bee honey on Kalahari bush/desert 卡拉哈里民族
Giraffe dance num-Tchai danco terapio 启舞蹈 ชี่ เต้นรำ บำบัด. Therapy around a fire, so the fire inside body (num, mana, prana, qi), heat up boiling and arousing to the abdomen (gebesi) just as arrows (num tchisi). Ju/Joansi women are seated making a circle arounf fire. Women clap hands and sing with devotion, giving rhythm to the men. Men dancing following rhythm of anklets rattles. Someone get num boiling and burning inside, then he/she sweet a lot, cry and fall down.. the Elder, with patience, access to Kia trance state then they are able to heal and speak with Gods and totem and their spirit ancestors (Gauwasi), just to pay any debt and resolve conflicts and illness of body-mind and environment. Kia, Twe (to pull out), Hxobo (cooling, water), num-Tchisi (num arrows).
ancient Elders of Eurasie, Eŭropo praloĝantoj fratoj 欧洲 俾格米人 ยุโรป คนแคระ
Ab'origines | Arab | Mediteraneo เมดิเตอร์เรเนียน 地中海 先民, Grekujo 希腊 กรีซ, Hispanujo สเปน 西班牙, Italujo arbaro 意大利 刚果的森林 คองโก ป่า อิตาลี Xitālī, Sardinio 撒丁岛 ซาร์ดิเนีย Sār̒dineīy, Lazio: ลาซิโอ, lā si xo, Romo โรม 罗马, Tibero rivero แม่น้ำ อิตาลี Mæ̀n̂ả Xitālī
Camunni. The history of Valle Camonica (near city of Brescia) begins with the end of last ice age, 15,000 years ago when the glacier, melting, creates the valley. The inhabitants, who had begun to visit the valley settled from the Neolithic. They were called by Romans the Camunni, famous for stone carvings: in Val Camonica they left about 300,000 petroglyphs, which made the area one of the largest centers of rock art in Europe. After many passage, in 1859 Val Camonica was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy.
Otzi. Like many shamans from many cultures the body was tattooed; his weapons (a roughly-hewn bow made of yew, several unfinished arrows, and an all wood dagger), resembled dummy weapons; he carried a medicine bag containing, among other things, a leather thong on which was threaded two pieces of a common birch fungus Piptoporus betulinus which contains polyporic acid C, an effective antibody, especially against stomach microbacteria. A similar fungus, also closely associated with the birch, Amanita muscaria, it has been used by various shamans cultures as an aid to ecstasy before the dawn of history. Otzi also carried with him a copper-headed axe and a net, an object used to trap spirits and seen in various forms as a dream catcher and such. The Shaman is a survivor, he has passed in one way or another through Pain, Disease and Death. The map of the world the Shaman operates in can be understood from what is psychologically called modified states of consciousness, usually accessed through a period of transition and sometimes identified as trance or journey. Not only the healer is in these states, but also the attended person and many times the other participants. Jose Maria Poveda wrote: The word shaman, used internationally, has its origin in Manchú-Tungus and has reached the ethnologic vocabulary through Russian. The word originated from saman (xaman), derived from the verb scha (to know), so shaman means someone who knows (techniques of ecstasy), is wise, a sage. In altaic Turkish it was kam; in Yacuto, ojon (female shaman was the udujan); in Butirates, böo, in Central, Asia bakshi; for the Samoans, tadibe; Lapps, moita; Finnish, tieöjö; Hungarians, táltos, Etruscan Maenas or Asena (wolf-medicine people); etc. This knowledge or wisdom, in the Tungu languages, implies mastery of spirits, whose powers can be introduced by the Shaman into himself at will, using them in his own interest, especially in order to help others who suffer because of spirits. Shaman has more definitions: Someone who is hyperactive, excited or in movement, or who is capable of warming himself and practicing austerities. An indigenous healer who deliberately alters his consciousness in order to obtain knowledge and power from the world of the spirits in order to help and cure the members of his tribe; in some way, he/she is in his activities a prehistoric ethnopsychiatrist. A person prepared to confront the greatest fears and shadows of the physical world. And depending on the results: A healer who has experienced the world of darkness and who has fearlessly confronted his own shadow as much as the diabolic of others, and who can successfully work with the powers of darkness and light. A guide, a source of social connection, a maintainer of the group’s myths and concept of the world. Person of any sex who has a special contact with the spirits (forces, ally, totem, ancestors, etc.) and capable of using their ability in order to act upon those affected by the same spirits.
Shamanism is tied to groups that show a tight relationship with nature, up to the point in which any menace towards it impoverishes our possible comprehension of its concrete manifestations. Around 9,000 years ago agriculture and the domestication of stock-animals came into being in what is now Turkey. Larger amounts of food enabled the peoples that raised the animals and crops to increase their populations a hundred-fold. Having done so, those same people, who only generations before were once small tribal peoples themselves, gradually forayed into Europe, taking their animals and crops with them and driving back into even more inhospitable regions the hunter-gatherers. The movement took place over a period of 4,000 years, affecting the whole of Europe and all of the people and tribes therein. Unlike what is found on the North American continent, most of the European tribal names, customs, culture and rituals were almost totally wiped out or erased during that 4,000 year period.
Etruscos-Turanian 伊特鲁里亚人 The original site of the Etruscan city of Tarquinia, known as the Civita, was changed to Tarquinia in 1922 as part of the nationalist campaign to evoke past glories. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was the legendary seventh and final King of Rome, reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 BC that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic. Tarquin's father, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, was the fifth King of Rome. His grandfather was said to be Demaratus the Corinthian. Tarquinii (Rasena Tarch-u-na) was already a flourishing city when Demaratus of Corinth, an immigrant from the Greek city of Corinth, brought in Greek workmen. It was the chief of the twelve cities of Etruria (referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia, Τυρρηνία, a region of Central Italy). Descendants of Demaratus, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus and Lucius Tarquinius Superbus became kings of ancient Rome. From Tarquinii many of the religious rites and ceremonies of Rome are said to have been derived, and even in imperial times a collegium of sixty haruspices continued to exist there. Priscus migrated to Rome with his wife Tanaquil, at her suggestion. On their arrival, Tanaquil interpreted an omen as predicting Priscus' future as King of Rome. Superbus was not the immediate successor of his father Priscus, since Servius Tullius took the throne on Priscus' death. According to Roman tradition, Tarquinius Superbus gained the kingship by ordering the assassination of his predecessor, Servius Tullius. The reign of Tarquin is described as a tyranny that justified the abolition of the monarchy. In 509 BC, after the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, the family of Tarquinius Superbus went into exile in Caere in Etruria. Tarquin sought to regain the throne. He convinced the cities of Tarquinii and Veii to support him, and led their armies against Rome in the Battle of Silva Arsia. More resulting war ended in 351 with a forty years' truce, renewed for a similar period in 308. When Tarquinii came under Roman domination is uncertain, as is also the date at which it became a municipality. Tall poppy syndrome (TPS) is a pejorative term primarily used in the UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and other Anglosphere nations to describe a social phenomenon in which people of genuine merit are resented, attacked, cut down, or criticised because their talents or achievements elevate them above or distinguish them from their peers. The specific reference to poppies occurs in Livy's account of the Roman King, Tarquin the Proud. He is said to have received a messenger from his son Sextus Tarquinius asking what he should do next in Gabii, since he had become all-powerful there. Rather than answering the messenger verbally, Tarquin went into his garden, took a stick, and symbolically swept it across his garden, thus cutting off the heads of the tallest poppies that were growing there. The messenger, tired of waiting for an answer, returned to Gabii and told Sextus what he had seen. Sextus realised that his father wished him to put to death all of the most eminent people of Gabii.
Phoenissa, the Bloody One, was the mother of the Phoenicians. Phoinis, crimson, Tyrian purple, was the unique sea-shell dye for which the Phoenician coast was long famous. Menstrual blood was considered life-giving. Its Latin description, purpura, purple, means 'very pure, purus. The Greek Phoenix was the transformed Phoenissa, the Snake-Bird Goddess, called Asherah, The Laughing Goddess by the Phoenicians. Asherah means queen in Akkadian-Phoenician and princess (Sarah) in Hebrew. Until Josiah put a stop to it (2:Kings:23:7), Asherah was considered El's wife in Judah. Crete, and all the surrounding islands, were as much a home of Lady Asherah of the Sea as Phoenicia. The fierce Asherah below comes from the Ionian island of Corfu's Greek name, Kerkira, means the Island of Circe, the ecstatic weaver of magical plants who stung like a bee and bit like a snake. Persephone, originally a Cretan Goddess, was also known as Korykia (the winged Iris of the Rainbow, prototype of Hermes) from krokus, bulb. Greek midwives carried the staff of the winged snake-nymph Korykia, the entwined psychopompic snakes that escorted their charges into the precincts of the Goddess. The kerykeion (Latin caduceus) became the symbol of modern medicine. Hippokrates, as he himself acknowledged, got it from Korykia. The greatest Phoenician trading center from 1800 to 1200 BC was the port city of Ugarit in North Syria, modern Ras Shamra, a metropolis connecting Crete, Cyprus and Greece with Egypt, Babylonia, Khatti (Turkey) and Assyria (northeast Iraq, south Turkey). Syrian, Anatolian, Cretan and Cypriot copper, tin, wine, grain, opium, kannabis, olive oil, dyed wool, timber, rare stone, minerals, finished metal products and ships were traded for Babylonian, Egyptian, Somali and Ethiopian copper, gold, grain, wool, fabrics, incense, ivory, ebony, wine, beer, foodstuffs, medicines, jewelry and cosmetics. Baal is the Phoenician Dionysos and he's struggle was pharmaco-shamanic ritual. One Ugaritic text reveals Mot, Baal's evil twin, God of the Underworld, enraged at Baal's conquest of the seven-headed Leviathan. Mot repays Baal with terror and death, but not before Baal copulates with a heifer, who bears him a Bull. Thereupon Baal dies and the Earth becomes barren. Anath decides to avenge her brother Baal: She cleaves Mot with a sword. She winnows him with a fan. She burns him with fire. She grinds him in the millstones. She plants him inthe fields. As if by seed, Baal is resurrected in the renewed Earth. Shapsh, the Sun Goddess who sees all, is dispatched by El to find Baal, who is once more battling with Mot. After seven years, Mot will have yet another victory. The rites enacted by Anath are a virtual duplicate of the rites enacted by Demeter in the Hymn to Demeter, the founder myth of the Eleusinian Mysteries religion. Persephone's need to return underground for a third of the year was insured by Aidoneus gift of a single pomegranate seed, a reference to the ancient aspect of Demeter, Rhea, whose spell cannot be broken. It is the seed that must be reborn.
The wolf (Canis lupus) is often found in the mythic lore of the Turkish and Mongolian peoples native to the steppe regions North of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and that the Scythians from whom they arose transmitted archetypes throughout much of European and Asian folklore. The wolf, even in the monotheistic religions it is respected, feared and reviled. The Roman Catholic Church often used the negative imagery of wolves to create a sense of real devils prowling the real world. However, legends surrounding Francis of Assisi show him befriending a wolf; Francis, ever the lover of animals, even made a pact on behalf of the town dogs, that they would not bother the wolf again. Wolves were generally revered by tribes that survived by hunting, but were thought little of by those that survived through agriculture. Some tribes, such as the Nunamiut of northern and northwestern Alaska and the Naskapi of Labrador respected the wolf's hunting skill and tried to emulate the wolf in order to hunt successfully. Others see the wolf as a guide. The Tanaina of Alaska believed that wolves were once men, and viewed them as brothers. According to the Pawnee creation myth, the wolf was the first creature to experience death. The Wolf Star (Sirius), enraged at not having been invited to attend a council on how the Earth should be made, sent a wolf to steal the whirlwind bag of The Storm that Comes out of the West, which contained the first humans. Upon being freed from the bag, the humans killed the wolf, thus bringing death into the world. The Pawnee, being both an agricultural and hunting people, associated the wolf with both corn and the bison; the birth and death of the Wolf Star was to them a reflection of the wolf's coming and going down the path of the Milky Way known as Wolf Road. In Japan, grain farmers once worshiped wolves at shrines and left food offerings near their dens, beseeching them to protect their crops from wild boars and deer. Talismans and charms adorned with images of wolves were thought to protect against fire, disease, and other calamities and brought fertility to agrarian communities and to couples hoping to have children. The Ainu people believed that they were born from the union of a wolflike creature and a goddess. Unlike fox and bear, the wolf has always been feared and hated in Finland, and wolf has been the symbol of destruction and desolation. While bear has been the sacred animal of Finns, wolves have always been hunted and killed mercilessly. In India, Krishna, to convince the people of Vraja to migrate to Vrindavan, creates hundreds of wolves from his hairs, which frighten the inhabitants of Vraja into making the journey. The wolf is equated with creativity, fertility and protection, as well as with destruction, usually in association with the sun and the heroes. This outlook was similar to the Native American perception of the wolf as embodying both protection and destruction. Before the development of farming and agriculture, when hunting and gathering formed the basis of survival, the wolf held a place of great importance. Just as did many American Indian peoples, some European peoples considered themselves descended from wolves, and thus worshiped the wolf as both a god and an ancestor. In European Antiquity, seeing a wolf before the beginning of a battle was an omen of victory, the wolf being symbolic both of the hunter and warrior. Turpalo-Noxchuo, the founder of the Chechen nation in legend, was raised by the Wolf Mother. Chechens are descended from Turpalo-Noxchuo and the Wolf Mother like sparks off steel. Wolf clans are often equated to Chechen teips. The wolf for Chechens (and generally also Ingush) is the national animal and the national embodiment: free and equal like wolves, intelligent, organized in clans, loyal, and brave. As with most ancient peoples' beliefs, the wolf was thought to possess spiritual powers, and that parts of its body retained specific powers that could be used by people for various needs. In Mongolian folk medicine, eating the intestines of a wolf is said to alleviate chronic indigestion, while sprinkling food with powdered wolf rectum is said to cure hemorroids. Mongol mythology explains the wolf's occasional habit of surplus killing by pointing to their traditional creation story. It states that when God explained to the wolf what it should and should not eat, he told it that it may eat one sheep out of 1,000. The wolf however misunderstood and thought God said kill 1,000 sheep and eat one. the Mongol peoples are said to have descended from the mating of a doe (Gua maral) and a wolf (Boerte chino).
Pan. Neolithic and Bronze Age temples and shrines yield a profusion of cups, bowls, vases, funnels and ladles. Many of these ancient jugs show the pharmaco-shamanic snake, symbol of death and resurrection (initiation) drinking from the spout. In Hagar Qim temple on Malta (3300 BC), was a stone table-altar into which had been carved a bowl decorated in front with a tree of life growing from a pot. Next to it was a standing slab, a pillar with floating eyes, double-spiral eyes out of which grew sacred plants. In the temple's central courtyard were two large carved mushroom-shaped limestone altars with cups. The Gold Ring of Isopata, near Knossos (1500 BC), explicitly depicts bee-headed women dancing in ecstacy, surrounded by drawn floating plants and snakes. This is a depiction of ekstasis, animal transformation and the disembodied flight of the soul.
Native Italian' tribes Praloĝantoj de Italujo 意大利原 住民 Xiān mín พื้นเมืองของอิตาลี
Native Italians tribes (from Turanian language group, and Kurgan group). The archeologist Marja Gimbutas identified the Indoeuropeans as a warrior culture of the bronze age (4000 - 2000 B.), that she called Kurgan. She thinks Kurgans migrated from an area confined with north Urales and Danubian river, expanding to Europe until India, fighting and absorbing many neolitic popolations they meet on they migration ways, becouse of their advanced militar technology as metallurgy of bronze and horses domestication, changing the social and religios structure of indigenous people. They bring also a sky God. The Kurgans, everywhere, were ierarchic societies divided into three castes: the warriors, the priests and the land-workers, with women and slaves, in the last step. King was the carismatic leader chosen by warriors. Erodoto tells that after the Golden Age, came the Silver Age, where the sons are more time with mothers, wars becoming simple hunting and no sacrificies are made to the gods. Among the pre-Indoeuropeans divinities, there was a Mother Goddess linked with Owl and a male Moon-Earth God linked with Bull.. For the ancient Europeans the world of the dead and the kingdom of the fairies (Faery) were adjacent to the living world. In special days, like the last night of October (Halloween), they invaded the world of the living passing through special gates as banks fog or megalithic circles. This night exchange between humans and fairy under the light of the Moon Queen, was neither good nor bad, it depended on the mood of those who attended the meeting, where the moon was a bridge between humans and the elves of enchanted circle. The Latins. The ancient Latium (Latium Vetus) was from Thyrrenian sea to the Tiber river until Aurunci tribal land near Terracina. In 2000 B.c., it was occupied by the Prisci Latini, indoeuropean peoples mixed with local aborigenals and Cretean migrantes. They was sheperds and farmers, changing forests and many swamps of Latium into farms and villages. The Latins use to make villages federation (gens, tribe) for defense from the mountanes Sabines. Slowly they organized a strong and organized army, as the Cincinnato legend tells: a farmer if necessarily become warrior to fight for his federation villages, then he go back to his simple farm (small ranch). The Latium villages (as the Rasenna one and Iroquos in US) made a strong federation among themselves, there was federal religious meeting during festivites up the Mount Cavo, the most Latin famous sanctuary; or at Diana nemorense temple on the Nemi's lake; or Giunone temple in Gabi; the Venus-Circe sanctuary up the Circeo hill; or the Fortunes Goddess sanctuary in Preneste; or the holy Forest of Tusculum and Aricia (sanctuary of Diana and Vertumnia); the sacrum Laurentum forest of Lavinium (controlled by the clan-gens-tribe of Laurentes); sanctuary of Horta (Orte), where all villagers were practicing vegetable-gardening as holy custom taught them by the Goddess of gardens (Horta Dea); Tibur, ancient sicilyan colony shared with Latin, Sabines and Appennines tribes; the sadhus' sanctuary of Lanuvium; Velitrae shared with Etruscan and Volsci; Antium, center of Volsci tribal land; the baby Juppiter temple (Giove Anxur) of Tarracina; etc. Later, most of this center were inglobated into the Roman federation state until the later Empire age.
In the world of the Mir (Russian village) there were positions of authority and responsibility of women more vivid. The woman who, immediately after the first child living improved up to be erected at the head of the house if, as was the custom, the husband strayed during the summer season (after harvest) to lend his art on distant markets or for a military campaign (for several months) and here we find that the same thing happened among the nomadic peoples of the steppes of Ukraine. Since then prevailed traditionally exogamy, our head home (hozjaika) was from outside and the new assignment was the most prestigious in the case of judgments and disputes as woman was more free from the constraints local. If, as happened then, was at the same time around the age of 40 years (when it intervened menopause), the tribute was made more and more obedience. The families we are talking about were so-called extended, that within which several generations lived together, and therefore it could happen at certain times of the year to have a whole team of women to the direction of entire villages. Here is the Greek legend of the Amazons of the company and the story of Herodotus of the fourth century. B.C. The greek historian puts this tribe of women in the north where the Sarmatians lived (their heirs are properly Ossetians or Alans). In exogamous marriage (married outside of their own village), already in the etymology of the Russian word for bride, nevesta (unknown, alien), translates it comes from non-local and secondly its complete acculturation in the company of her husband . The number of brides for men was limited and who could, had more than one! It is explained by the high rate of perinatal death of the mother and infant and is therefore the need to have more children, always with the aim of enhancing and play the race. The marriages were of various kinds, but the marriage is the most common way to establish alliances between clans and clans, between village and village, family and family. The feeling of the race was very strong and was reflected in the religious worship of the deity magic-founder in a world far away in time in the sacred original tribe to which most believed to belong mir. The woman, by virtue, was delegated by the god Rod and his body, inextricably linked to the family of his companion, was available. The assimilation of the woman and her loose from the native was final until after the first birth. In cases of infertility, in particular, the woman was sent back to her family. The available space (material and ideological) is small and costumes allowed gender relations that the Church condemned as homosexuality or bestiality or sexual intercourse outside of marriage. For example, the right to sleep with her daughter in law, if the husband was away, competed to his father or the patriarch could sleep with his own daughter, it was necessary to have other children. In short, shot down the matriarchy, Eva becomes a sexual object without a specific item that passes from one owner or guardian (father, brother or anyone for them) to another, and, as the labor force, is assigned the additional role of servant and nursing.
Many pagan beliefs originated from the steppes own. In the reconstruction of M. Gimbutas's Indo-European nomadic shepherds, with their patriarchal organization, came in from the steppes of Central Europe already as farmers and shepherds and spread in all directions imposing their type of society to the people who lived there (some remains are Basque). The Indo-European fight forces the woman always lower positions beginning with the contempt of the gods to her due. In the numerous female deities venerated by the Baltic Finno-Ugric are the remains of a matriarchal society destroyed. The patriarchal society of Indo-Europeans arrived in 2500 BC on the banks of the Dvina and conquered the natives. In the plains south of the Russian Plain, remaining female statues (in Russian kamennye baby) standing here and there and worshiped until a few centuries ago by nomadic Turkic Islamized. Slavic Paganism lies in a humble desire to maintain a balance with the rest of nature beyond those who have created a christian God or a pagan god. Spells for each case of life have been collected by the voice of the wise folk, as well as the numerous amulets, also made by them, such as amber. Various holy places (crossroads along the banks of rivers-lakes, springs, wells, large boulders, stone labyrinths) also offered its security environment. Important Goddess is the moon called Moon in Russian (feminine), then Mesjaz (male) under patriarchal rule (Latin Moon and Mensis) and the greatest of all, was Mother Moist Earth that smierd then assimilate with the Virgin Mary.
Max Dashu wrote: Matrika (diminutive of mother) icons seem to represent the maternal ancestor, life-giver, and cultural founder celebrated in traditions of living matrix cultures. Several key themes of the iconic woman repeat on a global scale: vulva signs, female figurines, ancestor megaliths, and ceremonial vessels in the form of women or female breasts. These recurring signs reflect the spiritual concerns and ritual life of the people who created them. They belong to animist consciousness and philosophies, rich in complex meanings underlain with myth and mystery, pulse and flow. Sign is especially important to cultures based on oral tradition, conveying meaning on multiple levels. Where the transmission of orature has been interrupted or severed, signs remain as primary testimony to the cultural life of ancient cultures. The concept of Matrix exemplifies the multivalent capacity of the sacred sign. Matrix of time and space, which various cultures call Mother Nature, Priroda, Prakriti, Aluna, or Tao. The Tao Te Ching describes it as the creating Mother of everything that exists under heaven, upon which myriads of beings depend for their birth and existence. These are core values in the matrix (Latin word for womb, Indo-European root that gives mother, mater, meter, mat) cultures: a sense of kinship systems based on mother-right, that are matrilineal, matrilocal, and egalitarian (matriarchy implies a mirror image of patriarchy’s relations of domination and subordination), a life-support network within the maternal kindreds, which are cooperative and communal, and circles of exchange that reach beyond it. In the San Agustín complex of Colombia, megalithic women clasp their breasts or hold a child in front of their body. One smiles broadly, showing jaguar teeth. Some of the female megaliths of Pasemah in southern Sumatra also carry children; others ride on the backs of water buffalo. The women wear necklaces, earhoops, and circular leg-bands. Breasts and necklaces are a distinctive theme in megalithic art of northern Africa and western Europe, and southern Ethiopia. A megalith at Pedras Mamuradas in Sardinia has breasts but no necklaces, while others have necklaces but no breasts. The face of the ancestor, defined by a schematic brow-and-nose, turns up in many places. A female megalith from Georgia (Caucasus) is described as an owl-face. Mouths are often entirely missing. As folklore attests, this sign often indicates a connection with the dead. These are not portraits of individuals, but ancestral presences. In megalithic Europe, they are usually associated with collective burials. Devotional scrapings have hollowed out the vulva of a medieval serpent-woman at Sanchi, India. Many of Irish sheila-na-gigs (sculptures of women displaying their vulvas) show clear traces of this boring or scraping process. The old statue from Seir Kiaran is an archtypical Irish sheila: a hairless crone, with prominent ribs and small, pendant dugs. The Seir Kiaran sheila is old, a progenitor and ancestor. A ring of borings circles her womb, with the deepest, representing the vaginal portal all sheilas display, at the base. Atop the sheila’s bald head are two holes, placed as if to attach a headdress, or a pair of horns. Rock dust from these icons was revered as potent in healing, blessing, conception, and protection. Even in modern times, women in some districts of Europe went to sacred stones and megaliths said to confer the power to conceive. They rubbed their bellies or vulvas against the rock, or lay in a rock bed, often sleeping in it overnight, as Scottish women did on the Witches’ Stone near Edinburgh, which was carved to resemble a vulva. Animist practices of this kind draw on the sacred power of the living rock. Indigenous cultures often address and describe divinities as mothers (matrikas). In Brazil, the Tupians believe that every animal and plant species has its ‘mother’. The Mundurucú make offerings to Putcha Si, Mother of Game, to the Mother of Fish, tapir, peccary, deer and monkey. The Camayura venerate similar animal mamaé. Manioc and corn have mothers venerated over most of the Americas, like the Quechua mamasara in Peru. In Chile, Mapuche ceremonies begin by invoking the grandmothers and grandfathers of the directions. Reverence for spirit mothers also persisted in the Baltic region of Europe. Latvians revered fifty-some animist essences which they called mate: Mother Fire, Mother Sea, Mother Forest, and so on. Estonians chanted to the old woman, mother of the forest. In Nigeria, the Yoruba invoke awon iya wa, our mothers, which is a collective term for female ancestors and for older living women, the owners of the world whose power over the reproductive capacities of all women is held in awe by Yoruba men. Aboriginal Bambara assign multiple meanings to their Gouandousou statues: female ancestor, either individual or collective, Moussou Koroni, the white-haired old woman who created plants, animals, and humans, and who personifies air, wind, fire, and exuberant vitality. The same has been said of the gramadevi (village goddesses) in India. Matrikas were kept in shrines, household altars, or granaries. These last, as repositories of future vitality, are animist shrines in their own right. In Peru, the fertility goddess is often shown in a granary watching over the harvest. Frequently the matrikas are painted with red ochre, signifying the life-giving blood of the mother, and of Earth. Matrikas seem to reference the maternal ancestor progenitor of a lineage or clan, even a people. Matrikas are often found together with animal figurines. This association repeats the connection of vulvas with animals in many ancient petroglyphs. Sometimes the matrikas themselves show animal traits, like the vulture-headed icons of Amratian Egypt or the snake-faced nursing mother at al-Ubaid, Iraq. At Vinca, Serbia, a bear-headed mother suckles a bear-baby, and several other icons have duckbills. The goddess from a granary at Çatal Höyük sits on a throne flanked by leopards, the prototype for Kybele and her lions many millennia later. Matrix icons are still a living egalitarian tradition, and their custodians unequivocally affirm their sacredness.
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